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Bladder Cancer Treatment - Causes | Symptoms | Best Treatment
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Bladder Cancer Treatment

Table of Contents

What is Bladder Cancer?

Bladder cancer is a cancer initiates in the lining of the walls of the urinary bladder which stores the urine and release urine through the urinary tract.


Some commonly known causes that increases the susceptibility to kidney cancer.

  • Smoking cigars, cigarettes, hokaahs, etc makes one doubly susceptible.
  • Chronic Bladder Infection.
  • Males are on the higher side of susceptibility than females.
  • Lack of personal hygiene.
  • Occupations at risk are Dye, rubber, aluminium and leather workers, bus/truck drivers, rubber workers, motor mechanics, blacksmiths, machine setters, pesticide applicators are at the highest risk.
  • Side effect of Chemotherapy drug Cytoxan can be a cause.
  • Radiation treatment of cervical cancer treatment, in women, can increase the risk.

When to approach your Urologist ?

Some commonly known symptoms:

  • Pain in lower abdomen.
  • Sudden weight loss.
  • Urinary incontinence (frequent urination sensation)
  • Blood in the urine.
  • Early fatigue.
  • Bone pain.
  • Painful, burning sensation during urination
  • Urge to urinate but no unableto pass urine.

Types of Bladder Cancer:

1) Urothelial or Transitional Cell Carcinoma:
The innermost lining of the bladder wall/ urinary tract is formed of these transitional cells, which can cause cancer due to their abnormal growth.
2) Squamous cell carcinoma:
Thin flat newly formed cells develop on the outer linings of bladder wall/ urinary tract in case of persistent inflammation/ irritation in the bladder.
Cancer cells initiate in the adrenal glands spread out to nearby organs.

All above cancers are further classified as:

  • Papillary tumors: Attached to stalk and wart-like appearance. Most common.
  • Nonpapillary (sessile) tumors: Flat appearance, uncommon, malignant.

 Bladder Cancer Diagnosis:

  • Urinalysis.
  • Urine cytology.
  • Cystoscopy
  • CT scan

Stages & Treatment:

  • Stage 0: Cancer cells limited to lining of bladder.
  • Stage I: Cancer cells grown deep into lining of bladder.


  • Surgery for tumor removal, without removing the rest of the bladder.
  • Direct bladder- placed chemotherapy/ immunotherapy.
  • Stage II: Cancer cells cross the lining and spread onto the muscular walls of the bladder.
  • Stage III: Tumor has spread to any one of the following:
    Pelvis wall/belly.
    A nearby lymph node.
    Nearby organs uterus, prostate, vagina causing abnormal kidney & bowel functions.
  • Stage IV: Cancer cells spread out to other organs in the body like liver, lungs, bones.
  • Recurrent cancer:
    Reoccurance of cancers in kidney or any other part of the body, after treatment.

Treatment for Bladder Cancer:

Surgery: For removal of infected part of the bladder, post surgery  chemotherapy/radiation. Removal of the entire bladder (radical cystectomy ), also nearby lymph nodes. Shrinking the tumor cells prior to surgery, using chemotherapy. Combine radiation and chemotherapy.
Stage IV: Mostly incurable, chemotherapy can be attempted.

Types of Bladder Cancer Surgery:

  • Transurethral resection of the bladder (TURB).
  • Radical cystectomy.
  • Ileal conduit.
  • Continent urinary reservoir.
  • Orthotopic Neobladde.


At all above stages, treatments are finalized taking into consideration the overall health, severity, age and other ailments of the patient.


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